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Studies Examine Nasal Cancers, Reducing CBF, and War Injuries

Scientific Oral Presentations
7:30 – 9:30 am
Room N140

Research into a variety of topics will be presented Tuesday during “Scientific Oral Presentations: General Otolaryngology.” Following are summaries of three of the 17 five-minute presentations.

Dose Response of Rabbit Maxillary Sinus Ciliary Beat Frequency in Lidocaine

Lidocaine was shown to reduce ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and improve mucociliary clearance of the upper respiratory tract, including the upper airway and sinuses, according to a recent study.

Researchers used fresh ex vivo rabbit maxillary sinus mucosa, which was suspended in a buffered solution and viewed through a phase-contrast microscope. Control videos of samples were recording using an iPhone 6. Lidocaine HCL was slowly added to the buffered solution to reach the desired concentration.

“Lidocaine has a dose-dependent effect on CBF. Concentrations as low as 0.00002 percent still have a significant effect on CBF,” said Jason Chen, a co-author of the abstract. “The data herein has clinical implications in administering lidocaine, suggesting that four percent lidocaine has similar effect as two percent, and that even a small concentration of lidocaine may reduce CBF.”

Screening for Nasopharyngeal and Paranasal Sinus Cancer

Screening using nasal endoscopy or CT scans proved effective in the early diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma or paranasal sinus cancers in elderly at-risk patients.

The case-cohort study examined 150,088 Medicare beneficiaries using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The patients studied had a diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis or allergic rhinitis and were examined using one of the screening modalities within six months of exposure diagnosis.

“These results are interesting because they may indicate that diagnostic screening in an at-risk population leads to earlier diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and paranasal sinus cancers,” said presenter Michael J. Marino, MD.

The Emerging Necessity of Head and Neck Expertise in War

Almost 18,000 patients suffered head and neck injuries requiring 13,000 procedures during the U.S. military involvement in fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan from 2002 to 2015. Despite those numbers and wartime conditions, there was a significant decrease in overall mortality because of the availability of head and neck surgeons, according to the conclusion of a retrospective study.

An abstract reported on the analysis of head and neck trauma during Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom using data from the U.S. Department of Defense Trauma Registry.

The most common injury was open facial wounds (22 percent). The most common procedure performed was tracheostomy (14 percent), followed by control of epistaxis (7.6 percent) and eyelid/eyebrow laceration repair (7.5 percent).

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